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Molding Plane Basics

Over the past couple of months I have received many emails from customers and readers of my blog interested in getting started with molding planes. Generally, folks want to know where to start: how to choose a plane, what planes are used for which woodworking tasks, and what would be considered a good starter kit. This article is an attempt to answer these basic questions and provide a framework for more detailed articles in the future. I am going to try to provide some general information on the basic types of molding planes along with some things to look for when shopping for a plane. I will also give a short description of how these planes are used.

Some background: I have been interested in hand tools and wooden planes in particular for about 10 years. I enjoy collecting molding planes and using them in my woodworking whenever possible. I also like making and repairing molding planes, something that has helped me to understand how they work and how to tweak and tune them. I am by no means an expert. I welcome your thoughts, comments, questions, and criticisms. I intend to be a article to be a work in progress, something that is updated and revised based on your feedback.

Some Basics

A molding plane is a very simple tool- it is a piece of wood, almost always beech, that holds a blade (the iron) which is held in place with a wooden wedge. The blade is inserted into a mortise cut through the body at an angle. The front of the plane is the toe- this is where the maker's mark is normally stamped. The rear is the heel. The bottom, where the blade projects is the sole. The slot in the side where the shavings are ejected is the escapement.

A molding plane blade is generally bedded at 45 degrees to the sole of the plane, though British planes commonly used 50 degrees (York pitch) or higher. As the bedding angle increased, the action of the plane iron becomes more of a scraping action, and less of a shearing action. This is the same effect as increasing the effective cutting angle of a bench plane. The benefit to a higher pitch is that the plane will perform better on hardwoods with difficult grain. The cost is a plane that is harder to push and has a reduced usable edge life.

Why Use Molding Planes?

Molding planes are extremely effective tools- quick to setup and easy to use. Molding planes can take the place of most router bits and leave a much cleaner surface than any router can. Plane irons shear wood fibers, leaving a perfectly smooth surface ready for finishing. A router bit, no matter how sharp, leaves a scalloped surface behind. Now, if you are running 1,000 linear feet of crown molding, a router/shaper is the way to go. If you want to quickly add a bead detail to a door or table apron, tweak a rabbet, or cut a few dados, you can grab a molder and have it done in seconds. It's also much easier to quickly wreck a piece using a power tool than with a molding plane. Not to mention the dust, noise, and danger inherent in power tools. But, if you are a Galoot woodworker, or heading down that slope, I hardly need to make that argument to you.

Collectability vs.Usability

There are several factors that determine the value of a wooden plane- the maker, the condition, and the type of plane. There is a high demand from collectors for early American wooden planes, especially those from the 18th century, and those by well-documented plane makers. There are some early American planemakers whose mark makes even an ordinary molding plane wroth thousands or even tens of thousands of dollars. While these marks are rare, it's usually best to research a plane's maker before trying to put it to use. It's probably not a good idea to try to use, and potentially ruin, an early American plane which could be worth the cost of an entire fleet of more ordinary molding planes. I have listed some books in the resources section at the end of this article that can help identify a plane's maker and potential value.

The type of plane also has an impact on its value. In general, the more complex or scarce a profile the plane cuts, the more it is worth. The common profiles and plane types discussed below are usually fairly inexpensive in comparison to more complex planes. As with any collectible, condition is key. A plane in excellent condition is worth more than a plane in poor condition. Chips cracks, checks, missing blades or boxing all detract from a plane's value. However, just because a plane isn't cosmetically perfect doesn't mean it won't make a good user. I have some ugly planes in my collection that work very well.

Some Basic Planes

Here are a few basic types of molding planes. These are all very common and inexpensive planes, yet very useful in the workshop.


Rabbet Planes


Click any photo to enlarge
Above: (left)The two rabbet planes I use the most- a 7/8in. with nicker and a big 2in.
(center) A photo of the rabbet planes' heels showing the boxed corner of the smaller
(right) A rabbet plane in use- shown here tweaking a rabbet cut by the moving fillister shown in the background.

General Features: The rabbet plane is one of the simplest molding planes yet also one of the most versatile. They are very easy to setup and use. They are also incredibly common and are usually very inexpensive. Rabbet planes have a flat sole that is square to the sides of the plane body. The blade is slightly wider than the sole of the plane and projects out both sides. The allows a rabbet plane to cut flush to an edge, just like its metallic counterparts like the Stanley no. 10. Most rabbet planes have skewed blades which makes them perform much better when planing cross-grain, similar to skewing a hand plane. Some rabbet planes have nickers mounted on the right hand side of the plane. The nicker can be lowered when working across the grain. It acts as a knife, slicing the wood fibers in front of the blade leaving a crisp shoulder. High-end rabbet planes had boxed soles, though these are fairly rare. You will often find rabbet planes with holes in the sole- remnants of a fence being temporarily secured to the sole.

Uses: Rabbet planes can cut rabbets but, despite their name, they do not excel at this. Without a fence or depth stop they cannot cut the rabbet width or depth precisely. Where rabbet planes excel is in tweaking other joints. It can be used upright or on its side to tweak the depth or width of a rabbet cut by a fillister plane. It can trim a tongue and groove joint for a perfect fit. It can be used like a shoulder plane to adjust a tenon cheek or the long edges of a panel for a frame and panel door. Rabbet planes are also key when making built-up moldings with hollows and rounds. The rabbet plane, which is much easier to sharpen than a plane with a curved blade like a hollow or round, is used to hog off the waste between the molding profiles while the hollow and round molding plane is used as sparingly as possible. The rabbet plane is also capable of very coarse work. The skew-blade variety can remove a lot of material very fast. The sound they make as their skewed blades move through wood is quite unique- sounding almost like a huge zipper. You will often find these planes in rough shape, evidence of their being used for coarse work.

If you'd like to see a video of a rabbet plane in use check here: Video 1 Video 2. Video 3


Above: (left) Some rabbets have nickers to help them work across-grain.
(right) Most rabbets use skewed blades

Things to look for: Make sure the blade is in good condition. The mouth should be fairly tight. The body should not be twisted (put it on a known flat surface like a jointer table or surface plate and check if it rocks) and the sole should be close to 90 degrees to the sides of the plane.


Fillisters


Click any photo to enlarge
Above: (left)A moving fillister
(right) A moving fillister in use creating a rabbet.

General Features: The fillister plane comes in several varieties. The most common and the most useful in my opinion is the moving fillister. An adjustable fence and depth stop allows the plane to be set to cut a rabbet of a precise depth and width. The addition of a nicker in front of the blade helps it maintain a clean cut when working across the grain. The better planes will have the nicker blade bedded in a mortise in the side of a the plane, a wedge holding it tight. More commonly the wedge is dovetailed into the side of the plane. I'd suggest moving the wedge out of the way when cutting with the grain where it is not needed. The dovetailed nickers usually do not have the grip to hold the wedge up away from the sole. The only option in that case is to remove the nicker, risking that it could be lost. Judging by the number of planes I find with missing nickers, this happens a lot. Most planes have boxing on the right hand edge of the plane's sole where most of the wear occurs.

Uses: This plane cuts a rabbet and can be used both with and across the grain. Useful when making ship-lap boards, raised and fielded panels, and complex moldings with hollows and rounds. Functionally equivalent (though a much better performer and easier on the hands) to a Stanley 78.


Click any photo to enlarge
Above: (left)Showing the adjustable fence and boxed corner of a moving fillister
(center) The front corner of the mouth is where fillisters show the most wear. Also shown: The depth stop and nicker.
(right) A scarce screw-arm moving fillister

Here is a video of a moving fillister in use: Video 1

Things to look for: Make sure the blade is in good condition. The depth stop should move freely and stay put when set. Make sure that the screws that hold the fence in place have not stripped out. This is a common problem. Ensure that the nicker is present and has some life to it. If the nicker is loose in its dovetail this is not a deal-breaker- it can be easily fixed. Most important- over time as the blade is sharpened and reduced in length the relief angle, the bevel on the side of the iron, must be updated and ground. Otherwise the plane will not cut square to the face of the board. See Larry Williams DVD for an excellent example of how to sharpen and tune this plane. The nicker should be sharp. NEVER sharpen or put a bevel on the outer face of the nicker. This is a sure way to prevent the plane from cutting a square rabbet. Nickers are often made of softer steel than the blade. Most nickers can be sharpened with just a mill file. Check the boxing to make sure it in good condition especially the leading corner in front of the blade- this is where the worst of the wear will occur.


Side Beads


Click any photo to enlarge
Above: (left) A side bead detail.
(center) A graduated set of side bead molding planes
(right) A view from the heel of a side bead. The smaller 3/16is fully boxed, the larger just has the quirk boxed.

General Features: The side bead cuts a bead at the edge of a board. It has an integral fence and depth stop. It is a simple plane to use- hold it upright against the edge of a board and plane until it stops cutting. Very simple. These planes are always boxed- at a minimum the "quirk" of the bead is boxed. Better planes are completely boxed.

Uses: These are very useful planes to have on-hand. A bead detail is useful anywhere you want to add interest to an edge- along a table skirt for example. It also serves to soften a sharp edge, protecting people and the edge from splintering. A bead is also a good idea anywhere you want to distract the eye from a joint where two things meet- along a the vertical lines of a door, or along the edge of a ship-lap back of a case piece. The bead hides subtle variations in the edges from the viewer. The quirk of a bead is also a good place to hide a nail.

To see a side bead plane in use see these videos: Video 1 Video 2

Things to look for: Again, make sure the blade has no major pitting. Re-grinding small side bead blades is a real pain. Also make sure that the plane hasn't twisted- sight down the sole of the plane along the boxed quirk and make sure there is no deviation. If there is the plane will get bound up in use. Side beads are common so make sure you find a good one.


Dados

General Features: Dado planes are unmistakable. They have a main blade much like a rabbet plane. The blade is skewed and the escapement is almost always conical. Dados are equipped with a double-pointed nicker that sits in front of the blade. The nicker's knife edges score the wood fibers before the blade comes by and scoops them out. Some form of depth stop is also present. This may be a thumbscrew-adjusted brass or steel plate, a brass shoe held in place with a screw, or a wooden peg or tombstone shaped depth stop that relies on friction alone to hold it in place.


Click any photo to enlarge
Above: Various types of dado planes- notice the different depth stop styles(left)
A dado plane in use using a batten attached to the work(center) Closeup of plane in use- notice the curled shavings and clean sides to the dado(right)

Uses: A dado plane cuts a dado- a groove away from the edge of a board across the grain of the wood. It is commonly used in case pieces to secure shelves, dividers, cabinet tops and bottoms, etc. A dado plane does not have a fence so it must be guided with some sort of baton either nailed or clamped to the board being used. Dados are just about the coolest molding plane out there. They are incredibly fast and leave a perfect dado with crisp sides and a smooth bottom.


Click any photo to enlarge
Above: Closeup of a dado plane's sole- notice the skewed blades and the nicker blades preceding the main blade(left)
Close-up of the main blade and the nicker(center)

Things to look for- It is very important that the body is not twisted. If it is the plane will bind in the groove. Sight down the sole to try to detect any twist. The body of the dado plane will be somewhat thinner than the actual width of cut- this is correct. The depth stop should move freely and lock securely. The nicker iron should have some life left in it. If the points are short that's OK- most nickers were left soft so they can be sharpened with a file. DO NOT attempt to sharpen or mess about with the outside faces of the nicker. Only sharpen the inside bevel.

If you'd like to see a video of dado planes in use check here: Video 1 Video 2


Hollows and Rounds


Click any photo to enlarge
Above: A pair of hollow and round molding planes.(left)
Planes seen from the heel- notice the size stamped in the heel.(center)
Closeup of the planes' soles. Notice that the irons are slightly skewed and that the mouth is very tight(right)

General Features- Hollows and rounds are pretty straight forward- planes that have a concave or convex sole and cut either a hollow or round profile. Unlike almost every other plane, H&Rs are named by the shape of the plane's sole, not the profile it creates. So a hollow has a concave sole, a round has a convex sole. Don't ask me why. Some hollows and rounds have skewed irons to help with difficult wood and working cross-grain- picture skewing your bench plane when you tackle a tough board and you'll see what I mean. The British planes are commonly found with skewed irons, the American planes less so. Most hollows and rounds cut a 60 degree arc of a circle. Planemakers used a variety of numbering schemes, the most common of which is to assign the plane a number based on the radius of the arc it cuts in 16ths. Using this scale a No. 12 plane would cut an arc with a 3/4in. radius.

Uses: Hollows and rounds are frequently used together to create complex moldings. Together with a moving fillister and rabbet plane you can make almost any shape of molding.

Things to look for: Look for a good iron and a fairly tight mouth. I prefer British planes with a York pitch iron, slightly skewed. Matched pairs of hollows and rounds are nice to have, but not frequently found and not entirely necessary. You can do a lot with a few planes in the common sizes


Tongue and Groove Planes


Click any photo to enlarge
Above: A pair of hollow and round molding planes.(left)
Planes seen from the heel- notice the size stamped in the heel.(center)
Closeup of the planes' soles. Notice that the irons are slightly skewed and that the mouth is very tight(right)

General Features Tongue and Groove planes (also called match planes) are sold in matched pairs intended to work with each other. The planes are fairly straight-forward. One plane cuts a tongue, the other a groove. Both planes will have a fence on one side and an integral depth stop. The grooving plane will have a steel skate. The iron of the grooving plane will look similar to a plow plane blade with a deep V cut in the back to allow it to engage the skate. T&G planes are marked at their heels with the thickness of the stock they are intended to work. A pair of planes marked 1/2 would center a tongue and groove on 1/2in. thick stock. You can get away with using planes on slightly thicker or thinner stock as long as you keep careful track of the working faces of the boards. A 7/8 T&G pair (a very common size) could easily work 3/4in. or 1in. thick stock.

Uses T&G planes cut a T&G joint- simple as that. It is a very useful joint and something you are likely to use quite a bit once you have the ability to cut them quickly and accurately. The nice thing about wooden t&G planes is that they don't require any tweaking or test cuts like a router bit would. You simply hold the planes vertically and plane until they stop cutting. It is important, however, to mark the faces of the stock you are planing. The joint may not be centered exactly on a board so confusing the faces could result in a slight overlap in the two boards. It is common to find orphaned T&G planes. It is possible to match up T&G planes from different makers, it is unlikely that the resulting joints will fit perfectly. While I can't find any good uses for a lone tongue plane, a grooving plane is a useful tool to have around for plowing fixed grooves like for drawer bottoms or frame and panel work.

If you'd like to see a video of a T&G pair in use check here: Video 1


Click any photo to enlarge
Above: A Tongue and Groove pair shown in use (left)
A close-up of the resulting joints.(center)
The finished joint shown

Things to look for Make sure that the planes aren't too worn-out. when the sole or fence starts to show a lot of wear it could result in a sloppy joint. The soles of these planes are easy to tweak if they are out of true. Just be sure to tweak the sole of the other plane to match.


Complex and specialized planes

There are an almost infinite variety of molding planes. Complex molding planes are found in just about every size and profile combination. Some, like small ogees and ovolos are very simple to use and maintain and quite useful. Others are much more complex and more of a challenge to use. Many trades, such as sashmakers, casemakers, stair builders, and coopers used highly specialized planes in their work. Some of these planes are useful in a modern workshop, others are not so useful today. In the future I hope to put together an article on complex molding planes as well as specialized planes like sashmaker's planes.


A Good Starter Set of Planes

People often ask me to recommend a good starter set of planes. I answer them by thinking of the molding planes I use the most and trying to figure out which planes I would miss the most if they disappeared. I should mention that most of my work is small to medium size case pieces, boxes, etc. Thus, the plane sizes I recommend are scaled for that size work. If you primarily work on larger or smaller pieces you might want to look for different sizes. If I had to narrow down my working set to just a few planes and prioritize them in order of preference, I would choose the following:

  • Moving Fillister
  • Skew Rabbet Planes- 2in and smaller around 3/4in.
  • Side Beads: 1/8in., 3/16in., 1/4in.
  • Dado Planes: 3/8in., 1/2in., 5/8in.
  • Tongue and Groove pair- 3/4in.
  • Hollow and Rounds- sizes near 6,8,10,12

I think that is a good starter set of molding planes. Of course, you don't need to acquire them all at once- get one or two planes and try them out. Get a feel for sharpening them, using them- setting the wedge, etc. Then add more as your projects demand. There's no need to run out and get a full set of H&Rs or every size dado right away. I like to acquire tools as I need them, taking the time to tune up each new plane on its own rather than acquire everything I may ever need all at once. Once you get your first experience with a properly tuned molding plane- and whiff of that distinct smell 100year old beech makes when it heats up in use, you'll be hooked.


Resources

John Whelan's "The Wooden Plane: Its History, Form and Function". An excellent book on all aspects of wooden planes. It discusses the physics of planing, the basic types of molding planes, the specialized planes used by specific trades, and help identifying hundreds of different complex molding types. This book appears to have just gone out of print. Amazon seems to be sold out, but MJD's site seems to have it in stock.

Pollak's "A Guide to the Makers of American Wooden Planes" the most recent 4th edition, revised by Tom Elliott, is the reference for American wooden planes. This book will give you some basic facts and working dates for most American planemakers as well as an idea of how rare the mark is. This book is still in print.

Lie-Nielsen Toolworks has three excellent DVDs on molding planes. Larry Williams' "Sharpening Profiled Hand Tools" is very instructive and covers sharpening a number of edge tools including molding planes of all sorts, cambered bench plane blades, gouges, etc. His method for sharpening curved blades is very easy to understand and easy to replicate. Don McConnell has two DVDs available through L-N: "Traditional Molding Techniques: The Basics" gives an excellent introduction to molding planes and shows how to build a nice complex molding using a pair of hollows and rounds and a rabbet. Just seeing an experienced craftsman use these planes is worth the price alone. Don has a second DVD called "Traditional Molding Techniques: Cornice Moldings" which covers making more advanced complex moldings. I don't have this DVD yet but I have heard good things about it. All three DVDs are available from Lie-Nielsen Toolworks


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